United Kingdom

Welcome to the United Kingdom Travel & Tourism Guide, please select a menu or you can browse the whole page:

United Kingdom Travel Information

A radial road network totals 29,145 miles (46,904 km) of main roads, 2,173 miles (3,497 km) of motorways and 213,750 miles (344,000 km) of paved roads. The M25, encircling London, is the largest and busiest bypass in the world. In 2022, there were a total of 40.8 million licensed vehicles in Great Britain.

The UK has an extensive railway network of 10,072 miles (16,209 km). In Great Britain, the British Rail network was privatised between 1994 and 1997, followed by a rapid rise in passenger numbers. The UK was ranked eighth among national European rail systems in the 2017 European Railway Performance Index assessing intensity of use, quality of service and safety.

High Speed 2 (HS2) is a new high speed railway under construction linking up London, the Midlands, the North and Scotland, serving over 25 stations, including eight of Britain’s 10 largest cities and connecting around 30 million people, capable of speeds of up to 225 mph.[284][285] Crossrail, which was renamed the Elizabeth line in 2016, in honour of Queen Elizabeth II, opened in 2022. It was Europe’s largest construction project at the time and will bring in an estimated £42 billion to the UK economy.

London has the busiest city airport system in the world.
Great British Railways is a planned state-owned public body that will oversee rail transport in Great Britain. In 2014, there were 5.2 billion bus journeys in the UK, 2.4 billion of which were in London.[288] The red double-decker bus has entered popular culture as an internationally recognised icon of England.

The London bus network is extensive, with over 6,800 scheduled services every weekday carrying about six million passengers on over 700 different routes making it one of the most extensive bus systems in the world and the largest in Europe.

In the year from October 2009 to September 2010, UK airports handled a total of 211.4 million passengers. In that period the three largest airports were London Heathrow Airport (65.6 million passengers), Gatwick Airport (31.5 million passengers) and London Stansted Airport (18.9 million passengers). London Heathrow Airport, located 15 miles (24 km) west of the capital, is the world’s second busiest airport by international passenger traffic and has the most international passenger traffic of any airport in the world, it is the hub for the UK flag carrier British Airways, as well as Virgin Atlantic.[

Visas and Border Measures

Make sure you meet all entry and exit conditions. If you don’t, the Australian Government can’t help you.

If you’re travelling to the UK as a tourist for less than 6 months, you usually won’t need a visa.

If you’re travelling to the UK for other purposes, seek guidance from the UK’s Visa and Immigration Service on obtaining a visa.

The UK can refuse entry without a visa if they think you’re trying to enter for something other than tourism. You’ll need a visa if you plan to do paid or unpaid work, volunteer or get married. Arrange this before you travel.

Australian Government officials can’t help you change your UK visa status.

Entry and exit conditions can change at short notice. Contact the UK High Commission for details about visas, currency and customs.

Departure from the UK

Stay in touch with your airline for the latest information on disruptions which can occur at short notice.

Check your route carefully with your travel provider, travel agent, and Smartraveller to confirm transit or entry requirements.

Some countries may still require travellers to provide proof of vaccination or negative COVID tests before departure. If vaccinated in the UK, you can show your vaccination status for international travel purposes by obtaining your NHS COVID Pass using the NHS app (this is available from the NHS and is separate from the NHS COVID-19 app). The QR code on the digital pass expires after one month but can be refreshed at any time. Some countries don’t accept the digital version as a downloaded PDF. However, you can apply to the NHS for a COVID Pass letter which doesn’t have an expiry date.


Some countries won’t let you enter unless your passport is valid for 6 months after you plan to leave that country. This can apply even if you’re just transiting or stopping over.

Some foreign governments and airlines apply the rule inconsistently. You can receive conflicting advice from different sources.

You can end up stranded if your passport is not valid for more than 6 months.

The Australian Government does not set these rules. Check your passport’s expiry date before you travel. If you’re not sure it’ll be valid for long enough, consider getting a new passport.

Lost or stolen passport

Your passport is a valuable document. It’s attractive to people who may try to use your identity to commit crimes.

Some people may try to trick you into giving them your passport. Always keep it in a safe place.

If your passport is lost or stolen, tell the Australian Government as soon as possible:

Passport with ‘X’ gender identifier

Although Australian passports comply with international standards for sex and gender, we can’t guarantee that a passport showing ‘X’ in the sex field will be accepted for entry or transit by another country. Contact the nearest embassy, high commission or consulate of your destination before you arrive at the border to confirm if authorities will accept passports with ‘X’ gender markers.


Terminal 4 at Heathrow Airport
Air transport in the United Kingdom is the commercial carriage of passengers, freight and mail by aircraft, both within the United Kingdom (UK) and between the UK and the rest of the world. In the past 25 years[when?] the industry has seen continuous growth, and the demand for passenger air travel in particular is forecast to increase from the current level of 236 million passengers to 465 million in 2030.

One airport, Heathrow Airport, is amongst the top ten busiest airports in the world. More than half of all passengers travelling by air in the UK currently travel via the six London area airports. Outside London, Manchester Airport is by far the largest and busiest of the remaining airports, acting as a hub for the 20 million or so people who live within a two-hour drive. Regional airports have experienced the most growth in recent years, due to the success of low-cost carrier airlines over the last decade.[when?]
In 2013 the UK had the third highest number of passengers carried of any country, behind only the United States and China.


Although the number of airports in the UK runs into hundreds, many are smaller aerodromes dealing with general aviation rather than air transport. In terms of the latter, statistics are collected from 59 main airports, and the largest concentration of services is located in the London and South East of England areas. Heathrow is the largest airport in the country, handling over 67 million terminal passengers in 2006, making it the third busiest airport in the world, and the busiest if measured by the number of international passengers.

Nearly a third of all overseas residents visiting the UK enter the country via this airport, which also handles more than a fifth of all overseas visits by UK residents.[10] Heathrow is also a cargo gateway and usually has up to 20 dedicated cargo aircraft using its facilities every day. The largest of which is DHL who also lease cargo aircraft to British Airways for weekend operations.

Gatwick airport, with 34 million terminal passengers, is the second largest in the country, eighth busiest in the world and lays claim to the busiest single runway airport in the world.[8][9][12] Between them the five London airports handle nearly 137 million terminal passengers, 59 per cent of the national total.

As far as dedicated cargo services are concerned, Stansted and East Midlands airports have both experienced large growth in freight handling over the past decade, and these two airports are the major hubs for express freight operations.

Outside London and the South East, the use of regional airports has increased dramatically in recent years, with the amount of air traffic using these facilities doubling in the period 1995 to 2005.

To illustrate this growth, in the five years from 2001 passenger numbers at the regional airports of Exeter Airport, Bristol Airport, and Newcastle Airport increased by 191 per cent, 113 per cent, and 60 per cent respectively. In the same period the largest airports experienced some of the slowest growth, with Heathrow passenger numbers increasing by 11 per cent, and those of Gatwick increasing by less than 10 per cent.

The vast majority of all passengers travelling by air to or from the UK are carried by UK airlines, of which there are around forty, and at the end of 2006 the UK air transport fleet numbered 963 aircraft, flying just under 1.2 million flights and averaging over eight hours of flying daily.

Together the two largest airlines as measured by passenger numbers; British Airways and easyJet, account for nearly half of the 127 million passengers flown on UK airlines. In terms of capacity, both available and used, British Airways is again the largest airline, whilst easyJet is pushed into third place by Virgin Atlantic. British Airways passenger flights also account for over 50 per cent of all cargo carried by UK airlines, and when combined with its cargo operations the airline carries over 60 per cent of all cargo carried by UK airlines.

Road travel

The United Kingdom has a network of roads, of varied quality and capacity, totalling about 262,300 miles (422,100 km). Road distances are shown in miles or yards and UK speed limits are indicated in miles per hour (mph) or by the use of the national speed limit (NSL) symbol. Some vehicle categories have various lower maximum limits enforced by speed limiters. A unified numbering system is in place for Great Britain, whilst in Northern Ireland, there is no available explanation for the allocation of road numbers.[1]

The earliest specifically engineered roads were built during the British Iron Age. The road network was expanded during the Roman occupation. Some of these roads still remain to this day. New roads were added in the Middle Ages and from the 17th century onwards. Whilst control has been transferred between local and central bodies, current management and development of the road network is shared between local authorities, the devolved administrations of Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, and National Highways (England). Certain aspects of the legal framework remain under the control of the United Kingdom parliament.

Although some roads have much older origins, the network was heavily developed from the 1950s to the mid-1990s to meet the demands of modern traffic. Construction of roads has become increasingly problematic with various opposition groups such as direct action campaigns and environmentalists. There are various ongoing and planned road building projects.

In the UK, road safety policy is part of transport policy. “Transport 2010; The 10 Year Plan” states that the basic principle is that “people travel safely and feel secure whether they are on foot or bicycle, in a car, on a train, or bus, at sea or on a plane”.

There are several different types of road in the UK. While our audience will be familiar with a few of them, there will no doubt be a few which are new to them. In this article, we’ll be going through the various types of roads in the United Kingdom, as well as hopefully giving you an idea of their various highway surfacing needs.

Broadly, roads in the UK can be sorted into one of three types. These are:

  • A-roads
  • B and C-roads
  • Motorways

Different Types Of Roads In The UK


A-roads are classed as major roads that link regional towns and cities. They are also sometimes referred to as ‘trunk’ roads. A-roads can be either single or dual-carriageways and are found in both rural and urban areas. At present, there are more than 28,000 miles of A-roads in the UK, servicing millions of British road users every day.

B and C-Roads

B and C-roads are sometimes known as ‘minor’ roads in the UK. They are the roads that connect small towns and villages together. Unsurprisingly, there are more miles of B and C-roads in the UK than A-roads, as they make up over 87% of the total road length of the UK. Because of the sheer number of these roads, they will be the most likely to undergo road maintenance.


Motorways are the high-speed roads that allow movement of vehicles between major towns and cities. At the moment, there are 2,173 miles of motorway in the UK spanning the length and breadth of the country for convenient cross-country travel.

Sealed & Unsealed Roads

If a road is sealed, it means that it has been given a surface treatment to ‘lock in’ the aggregates used to make a road. In contrast, an unsealed road is one without surface dressing. Sealing a road not only makes it easier and more comfortable to navigate, it also makes it safer. Surface treatments such as LockChip fromBituChem work to secure the aggregate and prevent the ingress of water, thus making roads and pavements less prone to damage including the formation of potholes.

Motorways are sealed roads. This is necessary to allow for the high speeds (up to 70mph) and ensure the safety of drivers. Sealing high use and high-speed roads such as motorways also reduces the need for emergency and reactive repairs as they are more durable and resilient.

You are most likely to encounter an unsealed B and C-road surface and unclassified roads. These are usually created from loose gravel and, while relatively safe to travel on at lower speeds, still pose a hazard and can cause damage to vehicles in a variety of ways.


Taxicabs are regulated throughout the United Kingdom, but the regulation of taxicabs in London is especially rigorous with regard to mechanical integrity and driver knowledge. An official report observed that: “Little however is known about the regulation by anyone outside the trade.

The Public Carriage Office (PCO), which regulates and licenses taxis and private hire (commonly known as minicabs) was transferred from the Metropolitan Police to become part of Transport for London in 2000.

In 2015, there were around 298,000 licensed drivers in England, of which 164,000 were private hire licences, 62,000 were taxi licences and 72,000 were dual licences.[

Types of cabs

  • Hackney carriages (taxis) can be flagged down in the street or hired from a taxi rank.
  • Private hire vehicles (‘minicabs’) are passenger vehicles which can be either a 4-door saloon/hatchback, carrying up to four passengers, or MPVs that are licensed to carry between 5 and 8 passengers. These may not be hailed in the street.
  • Chauffeur cars are a sub-set of private hire; generally a higher-value car such as a Mercedes or Jaguar where the passenger pays a premium but in return receives a higher level of comfort and courtesy from the driver, some of whom wear a uniform.

Hackney Carriages

London taxi drivers are licensed and must have passed an extensive training course (the Knowledge). Unlike many other cities, the number of taxicab drivers in London is not limited. For many years purpose-designed vehicles were used, but from about 2008 specially adapted “people carrier” vehicles have also been used.

There have been many models over the years. The space beside the driver’s seat can be used for luggage, although there is much luggage room in the passenger compartment. For improved manoeuvrability, the turning circle is smaller than other vehicles of similar size (a black cab is said to be able to “turn on a sixpence”). The cab seats three people on the back seat, and two more in backwards-facing “jump seats”. There is good headroom, to facilitate entry to and exit from the vehicle. A ramp for access by disabled people is fitted.

Private Hire (minicabs)

In London the term minicab is used to refer to a private hire car and “private hire” is used in the rest of the United Kingdom; that is a car with a driver available for hire only on a pre-booked basis. They began operating in the 1960s in competition with hackney carriages after a loophole in the law was spotted (although in some areas it is possible to hold a dual hackney/private hire licence). A minicab must be booked, for example, by telephone, internet, or fax, or in person at the registered minicab office. A minicab can be booked at the time it is required, but only at the office of a company registered to accept bookings rather than directly with a driver.

Since 2001 minicabs have been subject to regulation in London and most other local authorities. London minicabs are now licensed by TFL (London Taxis and Private Hire), or TFLTPH, formerly known as the Public Carriage Office.

This is the same body that now regulates London’s licensed taxicabs, but minicab drivers do not have to complete The Knowledge, and although they must undergo a small “topographical test” in order to obtain a Private Hire Driver’s Licence, they generally rely on satnavs or local knowledge to take them to the pick up and destination.

All vehicles available for pre-booking by London minicab drivers must hold a private hire vehicle (PHV) licence showing that the vehicles are fit for purpose; this is updated with MOT tests twice a year after an inspection at a licensed garage. In London, new applicants must send their Topographical Test Certificate along with their application to the PH Driver Licensing Section of the TFLTPH.

Rail travel

Rail services are extensive. They can be affected by industrial action, weather, or engineering work.

Check National Rail or the Transport for London websites for the latest service updates.

Regular strikes can occur across several industries, including ambulance services, hospitals and public transport. Check National Rail or the Transport for London websites for the latest service updates.

Rail transport in England is the oldest in the world: passenger railways originated in England in 1825. Much of Britain’s 10,000 miles (16,000 km) of rail network lies in England, covering the country fairly extensively, although a high proportion of railway lines were closed in the second half of the 20th century. There are plans to reopen lines such as the Varsity Line between Oxford and Cambridge. These lines are mostly standard gauge (single, double or quadruple track) though there are also a few narrow gauge lines. There is rail transport access to France and Belgium through an undersea rail link, the Channel Tunnel, which was completed in 1994.

Crossrail was Europe’s largest construction project with a £15 billion projected cost, opened in 2022.[174] High Speed 2, a new high-speed north–south railway line, projected in 2015 to cost £56 billion is to start being built in 2020.


The UK Ports industry is the second largest in Europe, handling more than 500 million tonnes of freight each year, as well as over 60 million international and domestic up passenger journeys. There are about 120 commercial ports in the United Kingdom.

Five companies own many of the largest of UK ports: Associated British Ports (ABP), Forth Ports, Hutchison Port Holdings (HPH), Peel Group and PD Ports’ meanwhile the largest independent trust ports are Aberdeen, Belfast, Blyth, Dover, London and Milford Haven.

All of these port operators are members of the British Ports Association, the national trade body for ports and harbours and publish trade statistics for HM Revenue and Customs.[4]
Some of these ports will be converted to Free-ports: special economic zones where customs rules such as taxes do not apply until goods leave the port.

Five major ports in the United Kingdom
  • Port of Felixstowe. This port is located in Suffolk and it’s also the busiest port dealing with 48% of the country’s container trade. …
  • Port of Southampton. …
  • Port of London. …
  • Port of Immingham. …
  • Port of Liverpool.
The Port of Felixstowe is Britain’s biggest and busiest container port, and one of the largest in Europe… The Port of Felixstowe is Britain’s biggest and busiest container port, and one of the largest in Europe.

Major ports

North-eastern England

Port of Tyne, South Shields
Sunderland Docks, Sunderland
Teesport, Middlesbrough

Yorkshire and the Humber

Port of Hull, Kingston upon Hull
Port of Goole, Goole
Port of Immingham, Immingham

The Wash and East Anglia

Port of Wisbech, Wisbech
Sutton Bridge
King’s Lynn
Great Yarmouth Outer Harbour, Great Yarmouth
Port of Lowestoft, Lowestoft
Port of Felixstowe, Felixstowe
Port of Ipswich, Ipswich
Harwich International Port, Harwich

Thames Estuary and Kent

Rochford, River Roach, Wallasea Island
Port of London (includes Port of Tilbury)
Port of Ramsgate
Port of Dover, Dover
Rye Harbour

South Coast (including Isle of Wight)

Portsmouth International Port, Portsmouth
Newport, Isle of Wight
Port of Southampton, Southampton
West Country[edit]
Port of Poole
Portland Harbour
Bridport Harbour, Bridport
Falmouth Docks, Falmouth
Hugh Town
St Ives, Cornwall
Appledore, Torridge, Devon

Bristol Channel (England)

Port of Bridgwater, Bridgwater
Port of Bristol, Bristol
Avonmouth Docks, Avonmouth

Bristol Channel (Wales)

Newport Docks, Newport
Cardiff Docks, Cardiff
Barry Docks, Barry
Port of Port Talbot, Port Talbot
Swansea Docks, Swansea
Burry Port

Wales (west and north)

Milford Haven Port, Milford Haven
Fishguard Harbour, Fishguard
Caernarfon harbour
Port of Holyhead, Holyhead

Northwest England

Port of Manchester, Manchester
Port Salford, Salford
Port of Garston, Garston
Port of Liverpool, see also List of Liverpool Docks
Heysham Port, Heysham
Port of Barrow, Barrow-in-Furness

Southwest Scotland

Irvine Harbour

Northwest Scotland

Northeast Scotland[edit]

Southeast Scotland

Hound Point Terminal

United Kingdom Key Facts

The United Kingdom, made up of England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, is an island nation in northwestern Europe. England – birthplace of Shakespeare and The Beatles – is home to the capital, London, a globally influential centre of finance and culture. England is also site of Neolithic Stonehenge, Bath’s Roman spa and centuries-old universities at Oxford and Cambridge

England is in north-west Europe and is in the southern part of Great Britain. It is an island country and also part of the United Kingdom (UK) . England is the largest country in Great Britain and the UK.

Capital: London
Dialing code: +44
Monarch: Charles III
Government: Parliamentary system, Unitary state, Constitutional monarchy
Population: 67.33 million (2021) World Bank
Gross domestic product: 3.131 trillion USD (2021) World Bank
GDP (nominal): 2023 estimate

Accommodation in London, England

How much does it cost to stay in a hotel in London?

On average, 3-star hotels in London cost £136 per night, and 4-star hotels in London are £205 per night. If you’re looking for something really special, a 5-star hotel in London can on average be found for £403 per night (based on Booking.com prices)

How much is a hotel in London for this weekend?

The average price per night for a 3-star hotel in London this weekend is £239 or, for a 4-star hotel, £309. Looking for something even fancier? 5-star hotels in London for this weekend cost on average around £678 per night (based on Booking.com prices)

What are the best hotels to stay in London?

Pan Pacific London, Vintry & Mercer and The Savoy are some of the popular hotels in London

What are the best hotels to stay in London?

Pan Pacific London, Vintry & Mercer and The Savoy are some of the popular hotels in London

What are the best hotels in London near London Gatwick Airport?

Travellers who stayed in London near London Gatwick Airport (LGW) have said good things about Sofitel London Gatwick, Bloc Hotel London Gatwick Airportand Hampton by Hilton London Gatwick Airport.

What hotels in London offer an especially good breakfast?

For hotels in London that serve up a highly-rated breakfast, try 41, The Lanesborough, Oetker Collection and The Ritz London

How much is a hotel in London for tonight?

On average, it costs £173 per night to book a 3-star hotel in London for tonight. You’ll pay on average around £231 if you choose to stay in a 4-star hotel tonight, while a 5-star hotel in London will cost around £539 (based on Booking.com prices).

What are the best hotels in London near The Shard?

Some of the best hotels in London near The Shard include Shangri-La The Shard, London, Cheval Three Quays at The Tower of London and Vintry & Mercer.

What hotels in London have nice views?

Shangri-La The Shard, London, Royal Lancaster Londonand The Lanesborough, Oetker Collection have received great reviews from travellers in London regarding the views from their hotel rooms.

What hotels in London are good for couples?

These hotels in London are highly rated by couples: 41, The Beaumont Hotel and Bankside Hotel, Autograph Collection.

How much does it cost to stay in a hotel in London?

On average, 3-star hotels in London cost £91 per night, and 4-star hotels in London are £117 per night. If you’re looking for something really special, a 5-star hotel in London can on average be found for £199 per night (based on Booking.com prices).

What are the best hotels to stay in London?

Pan Pacific London, Vintry & Mercer and The Savoy are some of the popular hotels in London.

What are the best hotels in London near The Shard?

Some of the best hotels in London near The Shard include Shangri-La The Shard, London, Cheval Three Quays at The Tower of London and Vintry & Mercer.

What are the best hotels in London near London Gatwick Airport?

Travellers who stayed in London near London Gatwick Airport (LGW) have said good things about Sofitel London Gatwick, Bloc Hotel London Gatwick Airport and Hampton by Hilton London Gatwick Airport.

Which hotels in London, England are good for families?

Many families visiting London loved staying at 41, The Connaught and Claridge’s.

Book Hotels, Guest Houses & Villas in London, England

Hotels in London, England are spread around the State within the territory of 17.9 kilometers, while 66 hotels are located directly in the city center. We have 16 Guest Houses available to Book in London, England and 66 Hotels listed available for Booking right now.

Hotels in England by City

We have listed Hotels in England by District, select a city in England, England to view the latest Hotel Deals.


Hotels in England by Hotel Name

We have listed Hotels in England by Hotel Name, select a hotel in England to view the latest Deals.


Healthcare in England is mainly provided by the National Health Service (NHS), a public body that provides healthcare to all permanent residents in England, that is free at the point of use. The body is one of four forming the UK National Health Service as health is a devolved matter, there are differences with the provisions for healthcare elsewhere in the United Kingdom, and in England it is overseen by NHS England.

Though the public system dominates healthcare provision in England, private health care and a wide variety of alternative and complementary treatments are available for those willing and able to pay.

The Secretary of State for Health and Social Care is a senior minister of the Crown within the Government of the United Kingdom, and leads the Department of Health and Social Care with responsibility for England’s NHS. The Secretary serves as the principal adviser to the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom on all health matters.

National Health Service

The NHS is free at the point of use for the patient though there are charges associated with eye tests, dental care, prescriptions, and many aspects of personal care.

The NHS provides the majority of healthcare in England, including primary care, in-patient care, long-term healthcare, ophthalmology and dentistry. The National Health Service Act 1946 came into effect on 5 July 1948. Private health care has continued parallel to the NHS, paid for largely by private insurance, but it is used by less than 8% of the population, and generally as a top-up to NHS services.

Recently there have been some examples where unused private sector capacity has been used to increase NHS capacity and in some cases the NHS has commissioned the private sector to establish and run new facilities on a sub contracted basis. The involvement of the private sector remains relatively small and according to one survey by the BMA, a large proportion of the public oppose such involvement.


The crime rate in the United Kingdom was 79.52 per 1,000 people in 2021–2022. The overall UK crime rate saw a 1.18% increase from 2020. Among England, Wales, and Northern Ireland, the country with the highest crime rate was England, at 77.49 crimes per 1,000 people.

The overall crime rate in England in 2021 was 75 crimes per 1,000 people, and the most common crimes were violence and sexual offences, which happened to roughly every 33 out of 1,000 residents.

Out of all of England’s larger towns and cities, Westminster is the most dangerous. The next most dangerous is Middlesbrough, and Leeds comes in as third most dangerous. There are safer parts of England, starting with Bamber Bridge which ranks as the safest area in England, followed up by Fareham in second place, and Cannock in third place.


Tourism plays a significant part in the economic life of England. In 2018, the United Kingdom as a whole was the world’s 10th most visited country for tourists and 17 of the United Kingdom’s 25 UNESCO World Heritage Sites fall within England.

VisitEngland is the official tourist board for England. VisitEngland’s stated mission is to build England’s tourism product, raise Britain’s profile worldwide, increase the volume and value of tourism exports and develop England and Britain’s visitor economy.

Cities in England

The ten English cities visited most by overseas tourists in 2019 were:[7]

London — largest metropolitan area in Western Europe, and a global capital of finance, fashion, art and culture. In 2019, more than half of overseas tourists visiting the UK included a trip to London.[7]

— The third most visited city in the UK, a cultural, sporting, entertainment, shopping and media hub.

Birmingham — the UK’s second largest city (by population) in the industrial heartland.

Liverpool — The home of the Beatles, a cosmopolitan city famous for its vibrant nightlife, rich cultural heritage, waterfront, architecture, and music and sport.

Brighton and Hove — regency seaside resort and university town with quirky shopping, rich culture and vibrant gay nightlife.

Bristol — vibrant music and art scene, historic buildings, a waterfront area in the West Country’s largest city.

Oxford and Cambridge — university towns with prestigious colleges, museums, and gardens.

Bath — UNESCO World Heritage Site city renowned for its Georgian architecture, gardens, parks, and museums.

Leeds — cultural, financial and commercial heart of west Yorkshire
Tourist sites

Museums and Galleries

The Tate Modern art gallery in London was England’s top tourist attraction in 2018[8]
Unlike other countries, most state-run museums and places of cultural interest in England are free of charge to visit. Museums are an important aspect of English culture, and most cities and towns have a few museums and art galleries. Some of the most visited places are:

British Museum
Tate Modern
National Gallery
Natural History Museum, London
Victoria & Albert Museum
Science Museum, London
Royal Museums Greenwich
Tate Britain
Ashmolean Museum
National Railway Museum

World Heritage Sites

17 of the 25 United Kingdom UNESCO World Heritage Sites fall within England. Some of the best known of these include Stonehenge, the Tower of London, the Jurassic Coast, Westminster, the Roman Baths in Bath, Saltaire, Ironbridge Gorge and Studley Royal Park.

The northernmost point of the Roman Empire, Hadrian’s Wall, is the largest Roman artefact in the world, running a total of 73 miles in northern England.

National Parks

Lake District National Park is one of England’s many UNESCO World Heritage Sites and national parks

Some notable National Parks in England include:

  • Lake District National Park — mountains, lakes and woodlands; the land of Wordsworth.
  • New Forest National Park — one of the few remnants of the great oak and hornbeam woodland that once covered southern England.
  • North York Moors National Park — heather-clad hills, woodlands, sea cliffs and secluded beaches
  • Peak District National Park — rugged moors and hills which form the northern spine of England.
  • South Downs National Park — the gentle rolling chalk downs of southern England.

England possesses a wide range of natural environments, and continues to benefit from a significant ecotourism industry.

Attractions include:

  • Eden Project in Cornwall.
  • The Lake District, a national park and mountainous region in Cumbria, including Windermere, the largest lake in England.
  • The Peak District, a national park and upland area lying mostly in Derbyshire.
  • Dartmoor and Exmoor, national parks and upland areas in Devon/Somerset.
  • The New Forest, a rural forest and national park lying mostly in Hampshire.
  • The Jurassic Coast, a World Heritage Site in Dorset and Devon.
  • The Broads, a national park and lowland area lying mostly in Norfolk.
  • The Yorkshire Dales, a national park and upland area in North Yorkshire and Cumbria.
  • The National Forest, covering parts of Leicestershire, Derbyshire and Staffordshire.
  • The South Downs, a national park stretching from Hampshire to East Sussex and comprising chalk uplands and sea cliffs.
  • Center Parcs, a European network of rural holiday parks..

Travel Requirements

When you travel to England, you:

  • do not need to complete a UK passenger locator form before you travel
  • do not need to take any COVID-19 tests before you travel or after you arrive
  • do not need to quarantine when you arrive

This applies whether you are vaccinated or not.

It includes people who are transiting through England.

Other countries may have rules about what you need to do to leave the country to travel to England. You should check travel advice for the country you are travelling from.

How to stay safe while in the UK and on public transport

Check separate public health guidance on how to stay safe and help prevent the spread of Coronavirus while you are in the UK.

Travel provider and transport hub rules

Your travel provider, or the transport hub you travel through, may have COVID-19 rules in place. For example they may require or advise you to wear a face covering.

You should follow any COVID-19 rules and guidance from:

  • your travel provider – airline, ferry, coach or train company
  • the transport venue – airport, port, coach or railway station

Red list countries and territories

There are currently no red list restrictions in place for travel to England.

Travel abroad from England

Other countries have rules about what you must do to travel there from England.

Read separate guidance about what you need to do to travel abroad from England.

Covid Information

Most governments have implemented special entry and exit restrictions and requirements for their territory due to COVID-19. These measures can be imposed suddenly and may include:

  • entry or exit bans
  • quarantine
  • mandatory proof of vaccination or COVID-19 testing
  • suspensions or reductions of international transportation options

Foreign authorities might not recognize or accept proof of vaccination issued by Canadian provinces and territories. You may need to obtain a translation, a notarization, an authentication, or the legalization of the document.

Before travelling:

  • verify if the local authorities of both your current location and destinations have implemented any restrictions or requirements related to this situation
  • consider even your transit points, as there are transit rules in place in many destinations
  • monitor the media for the latest information
  • reconfirm the requirements with your airline or tour operator

The situation could disrupt your travel plans. You should not depend on the Government of Canada for assistance to change your travel plans.

Useful links

Every country or territory decides who can enter or exit through its borders. The Government of Canada cannot intervene on your behalf if you do not meet your destination’s entry or exit requirements.

We have obtained the information on this page from the British authorities. It can, however, change at any time.

Verify this information with the Foreign Representatives in Canada.

Check your Passport and Travel Documents before you travel

Check how long it will take to get a passport before you apply.

If you need a passport urgently, you can find out more about the Online Premium or 1 week Fast Track services.

Do not book travel until you have a valid passport – your new passport will not have the same number as your old one.

What is a passport?
A passport is a travel document that serves as the ultimate form of proof for your citizenship. Every country issues passports to citizens of that country.  British Citizen passports are issued by the United Kingdom Identity & Passport Service (IPS).  UK passports come in two sizes to accommodate frequent travellers, jumbo and regular.  Jumbo passports contain 48 pages while regular passports contain 32 pages.

Do I need a passport?
British citizens require passports to exit and enter the UK and all other countries in the world. It is your responsibility to carry the correct identification while travelling abroad.

Do British Subjects have the same rights of entry to other countries as a British Citizen passport?
No. British Subject passport holders have different entry requirements than British Citizen passport holders. If you hold one of these passports and require information on passports and visas, email info@uk.visacentral.comfor further information.

How does VisaCentral obtain a passport for me?
VisaCentral provides passport services for UK citizens by submitting proper documentation on your behalf to the UK Identity & Passport Service (IPS). This eliminates the need for you to visit, communicate, and correspond directly with the IPS.  Please go to Passports to see the full range of passport services VisaCentral provides.  For citizens of any other country residing in the UK, please consult your home country’s local consular office for passport details.

How long is my passport valid?
If your passport was issued when you were 16 years of age or older, your passport is valid for 10 years. If your passport was issued when you were 15 years of age or younger, your passport is valid for 5 years.

When applying for a passport renewal, will my old passport be returned to me?
Yes, your old passport will be returned unless it is deemed to be damaged by the UK Identity & Passport Service (IPS). The passport will clearly indicate that it is invalid and it is important that you advise whether any valid visas remain in the passport before applying for it to be renewed.

How long must my passport be valid for international travel?
Most countries require that a passport be valid for at least six months beyond the completion of a trip. If your passport expires sooner than that, you must apply to renew your passport.  Go to Visas to determine how long a passport must be valid for each specific country of travel. In the event that your passport is set to expire go to Renew Passport and get started.

Can VisaCentral obtain additional passport pages for my passport?
No. You must apply for another passport. Go to Renew Passport for details.

How many blank passport pages do I need to meet entrance requirements and what is considered a ‘blank’ passport page?
Passports must have enough blank pages to accommodate entry and exit immigration stamps for each country of travel. At least one visa page in your passport is required for each visa. Most travel visas that are stamped into your passport require an entire blank visa page. A ‘blank’ visa page must be clean, clear, and not show ink or stains from any other pages in the passport.

I am recently married or divorced and have changed my name. Can VisaCentral help me change my name on my passport?
With proper documentation, you are able to change the name listed in your passport.  VisaCentral can assist you in this process by submitting the necessary documents on your behalf.  Visit Passport Name Change for details.

Can VisaCentral replace my lost or stolen passport?
With correct documentation, VisaCentral can replace your lost or stolen passport in as little as a day. Visit Lost or Stolen Passports for details.

Do my children require passports?
Yes. Each individual citizen, including infants, must possess his or her own passport. You are not allowed to represent other members of the family inside your passport. VisaCentral can assist you if you need to get a new child passport or if you need to renew a child’s passport.  Visit Child Passport to learn about passport requirements for children.

How old must my children be to apply for a Child Passport?
Your children must be 15 years old or younger to apply for a Child Passport.  Visit Child Passport to learn about passport requirements for children under the age of 15.

How long will it take VisaCentral to process my passport?
For most passport services VisaCentral has one processing time: Fast Track – 6 working days. Visit Passports to determine the passport processing time for the type of passport you are looking for.

What mailing method does VisaCentral recommend for submitting my completed VisaCentral Application Pack?
VisaCentral recommends using Royal Mail Special Delivery or other traceable methods of delivery when submitting your completed VisaCentral Application Pack.

UK Emergency Travel Documents

UK Emergency Travel Documents (ETDs) aren’t valid for entry into the USA or transit through the USA on an ESTA. If you’re planning to enter or transit through the USA using an ETD, you must apply for a visa from the nearest US embassy or consulate before you travel, which may take a number of days, or hold a valid lawful permanent resident card (often referred to as a ‘green card’), which you must have with you on arrival. UK ETDs issued in the USA are valid for exit from the USA.

Visa Requirements

You may need a visa to come to the UK to study, work, visit or join family.

There are different visas depending on:

  • where you come from
  • why you want to come to the UK
  • how long you want to stay for
  • your personal circumstances and skills

Before you apply, you must check if you need a visa and what type you need. Depending on your nationality, you might not need a visa to visit or transit through the UK.

Your application must be approved before you travel.

You do not need to apply for a visa if you’re an Irish citizen.

If you’re from the EU, Switzerland, Norway, Iceland or Liechtenstein

If you or your family member started living in the UK by 31 December 2020, you may be able to apply to the free EU Settlement Scheme instead of applying for a visa.

The deadline to apply was 30 June 2021 for most people. You can still apply if either:

  • you have a later deadline – for example, you’re joining a family member in the UK who was living in the UK by 31 December 2020
  • you have ‘reasonable grounds’ for being unable to apply by 30 June 2021 – for example, you had an illness, or were the victim of domestic abuse

Check if you can still apply to the EU Settlement Scheme.

If you want to visit the UK

Apply for a Standard Visitor visa to visit the UK for up to 6 months. For example:

  • for a holiday or to see family and friends
  • for a business trip or meeting
  • to do a short course of study

You must apply for a Marriage Visitor visa if you want to visit the UK to get married or register a civil partnership.

If you have a visitor visa you cannot take a job in the UK.

If you’re travelling through the UK

You might need a visa if you’re travelling through the UK on your way to another country, for example if you have a layover between flights.

Apply for a visa to travel through the UK.

If you want to study in the UK

Your course length, type and place of study affect which visa to apply for.

A Standard Visitor visa lets you do a short course of study that lasts no longer than 6 months.

A Short-term study visa lets you come to the UK to study an English language course that is over 6 months and up to 11 months.

A Student visa is usually for a longer course. You must be sponsored by a licensed college or university and have a confirmed place. You may be able to do some work on this visa.

A Child Student visa is for 4 to 17 year olds who want to study at an independent school. If you’re 16 or over, you can do some work on this visa.

If you want to work in the UK

You can work in the UK on a short or long-term basis with a work visa. There are many types of work visa.

The visa you need depends upon:

  • your skills and qualifications
  • if you have a job offer and sponsorship
  • if you want to bring your family with you
  • what you’ll be doing – for example sporting, charitable or religious work

You can set up a business with a Start-up visa or an Innovator visa.

If you want to join family in the UK

If you’re a spouse, partner or family member of someone who has British citizenship or settlement in the UK, you can apply for a family visa to join them. They may need to show that they can support you financially.

You may be able to apply for indefinite leave to remain (ILR) after a set amount of time living in the UK.

If your family member is in the UK on a visa

You may be able to apply for a visa to join a family member who’s in the UK on a visa. They must be either:

  • your spouse or partner
  • your parent if you’re 18 or under

Check what visa you’ll need to join them.

If your family member is from the EU, Switzerland, Norway, Iceland or Liechtenstein

You can apply for a free family permit if you have a close family member who was living in the UK by 31 December 2020. A family permit lets you live, work and study in the UK for up to 6 months.

Close family members include your spouse or civil partner, child, grandchild, parent or grandparent.

You can apply to the EU Settlement Scheme after your family permit expires.

Family reunion visas for refugees

If you were separated from your partner or child when you were forced to leave your country, they can apply to join you in the UK.

Your family members can apply if you have been given asylum or 5 years’ humanitarian protection, and not have British citizenship.

Other ways to get permission to live in the UK

Commonwealth citizens

You can apply for an Ancestry visa to work in the UK if you have a British grandparent and meet other eligibility criteria.

You may have right of abode to live in the UK.

If you’re a Commonwealth citizen and cannot prove your right to be in the UK, read about the Windrush scheme.

Returning residents

If you had indefinite leave to remain (ILR) and left the UK for more than 2 years you’ll need to apply for a Returning Resident visa to come back.

Other visas

There may be another visa that’s right for you based on your circumstances. Check if you need a visaand what other visas you’re eligible for.


  • Stay up to date with public health guidance and confirm coverage with your insurance provider.
  • Make sure your vaccinations are up-to-date before you travel.
  • Ensure you have comprehensive travel insurance.
  • The standard of medical facilities in the UK is good.
  • We have a reciprocal healthcare agreement with the UK. Some GP and hospital treatments are free if you’re in the UK for a short visit. If you’re staying more than 6 months, you’ll pay a surcharge when you apply for your visa.

Bringing Medicines into England, UK

You need to prove your medicine is prescribed to you if:

  • it contains a ‘controlled drug’
  • you have it on you when you’re entering the UK

What sort of proof you need depends on the category of drug and how much of it you’re bringing in.

If you’re leaving the UK with medicine that contains a controlled drug, check with the embassy about the rules for the country you’re going to before you travel.

Check if your medicine contains a controlled drug

Ask your doctor or pharmacist whether your medicine contains a controlled drug.

You can also check the drugs listed on the packaging of your medicine and search for them on the controlled drugs list. The list does not give names of medicines, only drugs that are used in medicines.

If it contains a drug listed as schedule 2, 3 or 4 (part 1)

When entering the UK, you need to either:

  • carry a letter of proof that the medicine was prescribed to you
  • get a personal licence if you’re travelling in the UK for at least 3 months or carrying enough of the medicine to last you that long

If you’re a UK resident who has been prescribed this medicine abroad, you must also contact the Drug and Firearms Licensing Unit.

Drug and Firearms Licensing Unit
Telephone: 020 7035 6330
Monday to Friday, 9am to 5pm
Find out about call charges

If it contains a drug listed as schedule 4 (part 2)

To make sure your medicine does not get taken away from you at the border, carry a letter of proof that the medicine was prescribed to you.

If it contains a drug listed as schedule 1

You must contact the Drug and Firearms Licensing Unit before you travel to the UK.

If you need a letter of proof

You need to get the letter from the person who prescribed your medicine. You might need to show this at the border.

The letter must include:

  • your name
  • what countries you’re going to and when
  • a list of your medicine, including how much you have, doses and the strength
  • the signature of the person who prescribed your drugs

If you need a personal licence

Email dflu.ie@homeoffice.gov.uk to ask for an application form. Include in your message your full intended travel details and reason for visit, as well as your UK address.

Before emailing, you should also:

  • know the details of your medicine, including dose, strength and quantity
  • have a letter from your doctor including their professional registration number

Apply at least 15 working days before you’re due to travel.

For further details, read more about personal licences.


Snow storms

Snow storms during winter can cause disruptions to critical infrastructure, such as power cuts, or delays and cancellations throughout the major transport hubs in the USA. Contact your travel company or airline before you travel. To monitor airport conditions in the USA, visit the Federal Aviation Administration website.


The Atlantic hurricane season normally runs from June to November. The Pacific hurricane season normally runs from May to November. They can affect US coastal regions, Hawaii and Guam. The South Pacific tropical cyclone season normally runs from November to May and can affect American Samoa.

You should monitor the progress of approaching storms on the US National Hurricane Center websiteand follow instructions issued by the local authorities, including any evacuation orders.

The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) website contains information about how to prepare for extreme weather conditions and what to do if you are told to evacuate. It also provides a list of disaster supplies that will help if you live in an area affected by storms and hurricanes.

See our tropical cyclones page for advice about how to prepare effectively and what to do if you’re likely to be affected by a hurricane or tropical cyclone.


Alaska, American Samoa, California, Guam, Hawaii, Nevada, Northern Mariana Islands, Oklahoma, Oregon, Puerto Rico, Washington state and the US Virgin Islands are prone to earthquakes. To learn more about what to do before, during and after an earthquake, visit the Federal Emergency Management website.


Tornadoes can occur at any time of the year depending on weather conditions. To learn more about what you should do during, and after a tornado, visit the FEMA website


Forest and brush fires (wildfires) are a danger in many dry areas. High winds can cause fires to spread very rapidly. Areas of high risk are canyons, hills and forests. Monitor local media and weather reportsand follow the advice of local authorities, including any evacuation orders. Exercise caution in areas which have been recently affected by wild fires as they are more susceptible to mudslides during heavy rainfall.

For more information visit the National Interagency Fire Centre and  Fire Research and Management Exchange System websites.

For more detail about wild fires in California, visit the CAL FIRE website .


There is continuous volcanic activity on Hawaii’s Big Island. British nationals in the area should monitor local media reports and follow the advice of local authorities, including any evacuation orders. For further updates see the State of Hawaii’s website. To learn more about what to do before, during and after a volcano, visit the Federal Emergency Managementwebsite.

Large numbers of British nationals travel successfully and safely in and around the Arctic each year. The Arctic is, however, a vast region, comprising the northerly areas of Alaska (USA), Canada, Finland, Greenland (Denmark), Iceland, Norway, Russia and Sweden. If you’re considering visiting the Arctic, read the specific travel advice for each of these countries and consider carefully the potential remoteness of certain destinations from search and rescue, evacuation and medical facilities. Independent travellers are particularly advised to develop contingency arrangements for emergency back-up.

The most popular way of visiting the Arctic is by ship. As some areas of the Arctic -specifically the more northerly and remote regions – can be uncharted and ice-covered, you should check the previous operational experience of cruise and other operators offering travel in the region. You should also consider the on-board medical facilities of cruise ships and talk to cruise operators as appropriate, particularly if you have a pre-existing medical condition.

The eight Arctic states take their international search and rescue obligations very seriously, and have recently signed a binding agreement on search and rescue co-operation in the Arctic. However, in the highest latitude regions of the Arctic, cruise ships may be operating in relative isolation from other vessels and/or inhabited areas. You should be aware that in these regions, search and rescue response will often need to be despatched from many hundreds of miles away, and assistance to stranded vessels may take several days to arrive, particularly in bad weather. Search and rescue assets are also likely to offer only basic transport and basic medical care, and are unlikely to be capable of advanced life-support. Responsible cruise operators should happily provide additional information relevant to the circumstances of the cruise they are offering, and address any concerns you may have.

If you’re abroad and you need emergency help from the UK government, contact the nearest British embassy, consulate or high commission. If you need urgent help because something has happened to a friend or relative abroad, contact the FCDO in London on 020 7008 5000 (24 hours).

Travel Safety

  • You should exercise common sense and look out for suspicious behaviour, as you would in Australia.
  • International terrorists have staged attacks in the UK. The UK Government’s terrorism threat level is “substantial”, meaning it assesses an attack is likely. Islamic extremism, extreme right-wing ideology and the status of Northern Ireland contribute to the threat. Always be alert to terrorism. Take official warnings seriously.
  • Avoid areas where protests are occurring due to the potential for disruption and violence. Monitor the media for information and updates. Follow the instructions of local authorities.
  • Petty crime occurs. Beware of pickpockets in tourist areas, at restaurants and bars, and on transport. Take care when using ATMs and credit cards.
  • There have been incidents of spiking and acid attacks across the UK. Be alert.


Foreign travel checklist

Read our foreign travel checklist to help you plan for your trip abroad and stay safe while you’re there.

How to get around in England

The answers provided below are based on answers previously given by the tour provider to customers’ questions.

What are the best How to Get Around in England?

What How to Get Around in England are 1 hour or less?

What How to Get Around in England are taking additional safety precautions?

What How to Get Around in England are good for avoiding crowds?

These hidden gems in England may have limited interaction with crowds:

England Historical Tours

The answers provided below are based on answers previously given by the tour provider to customers’ questions.

What are the best Historical Tours in England?

What Historical Tours in England are taking additional safety precautions?

What Historical Tours in England are good for avoiding crowds?

These hidden gems in England may have limited interaction with crowds:

England Culture Tours

The answers provided below are based on answers previously given by the tour provider to customers’ questions.

What are the best Culture in England?

What Culture in England are 1 hour or less?

What Culture in England are taking additional safety precautions?

What Culture in England are good for avoiding crowds?

These hidden gems in England may have limited interaction with crowds:

Museums in England

The answers provided below are based on answers previously given by the tour provider to customers’ questions.

What are the best Museums in England?

What Museums in England are taking additional safety precautions?

What Museums in England are good for avoiding crowds?

These hidden gems in England may have limited interaction with crowds:

Art Galleries in England

The answers provided below are based on answers previously given by the tour provider to customers’ questions.

What are the best Art Galleries in England?

What Art Galleries in England are taking additional safety precautions?

These England experiences are providing additional COVID-19 safety measures:

England Arts & Culture Tours

The answers provided below are based on answers previously given by the tour provider to customers’ questions.

What are the best Art & Culture in England?

What Art & Culture in England are 1 hour or less?

What Art & Culture in England are taking additional safety precautions?

What Art & Culture in England are good for avoiding crowds?

These hidden gems in England may have limited interaction with crowds:

Architecture Tours in England

The answers provided below are based on answers previously given by the tour provider to customers’ questions.

What are the best Architecture Tours in England?

What Architecture Tours in England are 1 hour or less?

What Architecture Tours in England are taking additional safety precautions?

What Architecture Tours in England are good for avoiding crowds?

Food & Drink Tours in England

Attractions & Sightseeing Tours in London, England

Below are Sightseeing Activity Tours & Attractions in London, England. Visit Bars, Pubs and Night Clubs in London, England with our Nightlife Tours which include Wine Tasting, Dining Experiences in some of England’s Finest Restaurants.

Book Hotels, Guest Houses & Villas in London, England

Hotels in London, England are spread around the city within the territory of 17.9 kilometers, while 66 hotels are located directly in the city center. We have 2281 Apartments listed in London,  England779 Guest Houses available to Book in London, England and 1935 Hotels listed available for Booking right now.